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Greek Mythology > People, Places, & Things > Thriambos to Tyrtaeus
T to Theban Plays Thebe to Thrasymedes Thriambos to Tyrtaeus
A name for Bakkhus (Bacchus); also the name of hymns to Bakkhus.
An ancient Greek chair; highly ornamented, having a high seat and back with carved legs ending in animal feet; literally meaning Throne; Thronos was the name of the seat of the oracle of Apollon at Delphi.
(not the historian by the same name) In Athens, he was exiled because of his political opposition to Perikles (Pericles); he returned from exile circa 433 BCE but was unable to speak in his own defense at his trial.
(circa 460-400 BCE) A Greek historian noted for his account of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE).
Thukydides was a remarkable man because of the innovations he introduced to the recording of historical events; he followed Herodotus by a generation and, although he never mentioned Herodotus by name, he had clearly read Herodotus’ historical works; unlike Herodotus, Thukydides did not find supernatural causes and reasons for the unfolding of the war; he was unromantic in the sense that he did not quote oracles or trace the heritage of the war’s participants to the gods but, like everyone else in Greece, Thukydides did not expect the war between Athens and Sparta to last for 27 years; he might have begun recording the war as a “project” but it soon became a lifelong commitment.
Before the time of Thukydides, the dating of historical events was blurred and nebulous; historical events like the Trojan War, the settling of Boeotia, and the settlement of the Peloponnesian Peninsula by the Dorians were accepted facts in ancient Greece but the actual dates of these events were unknown; Thukydides introduced the idea of dating the elements of the Peloponnesian War by listing events yearly from the beginning of the war, breaking down each year into Summer and Winter and further defining each season as early, middle and late; this may seem crude to us but in ancient Greece, this was a truly novel and clever innovation; Thukydides died before his history was completed and the final years of the Peloponnesian War were recorded by Xenophon.
There are several excellent translations of the History of the Peloponnesian War and you can find them at your local library or you can order one through the Book Shop on this site which is linked to Amazon.com; I recommend the Penguin Classics version (ISBN 0140440399).
The ancient Greek and Latin name for an island or region variously identified as one of the Shetland Islands, Iceland or Norway; presumed to be the most northerly region of the world.
One of the sons of Pelops and Hippodamia; his son, Aigisthos (Aegisthus), was the result of a union with his daughter, Pelopia.
Thyestes was the brother of Atreus and when he tried to seduce Atreus’ wife, Aerope, he was banished by Atreus and according to the tragic poet, Aeskhylus (Aeschylus), Atreus killed all but one of Thyestes’ children and fed them to him at a feast; the only surviving child, Aigisthos, was instrumental in the murder of Atreus’ son, Agamemnon.
The daughter of Deukalion (Deucalion); the consort of Zeus and mother of Makedon (Macedon).
A small island of Euxine (Black Sea) located near the south-eastern shore west of the modern river, Sakarya.
Thynias was the island where the blind seer, Phineus, was held prisoner and tormented by the winged-women known as the Harpies; the Argonauts stopped on the island on their way to Kolkhis (Colchis); the winged sons of Boreas (the North Wind), Kalais (Calais) and Zetes chased away the Harpies and freed Phineus from his curse.
The wand of Bakkhus (Bacchus) with ivy entwined around the staff and a pine cone and vine leaves mounted on the top.
A river in southwestern Asia which flows southeastward from the Taurus Mountains for 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) until it joins the Euphrates River in what is now modern Iraq.
A percussion instrument similar to a tambourine.
A Greek commander from the city of Korinth (Corinth) who was sent from Korinth to relieve the citizens of the city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily (circa 337 BCE).
Timoleon expelled the unpopular tyrant, Dionysus II, and took command of Syracuse; seeing the Greek colonies in disarray, the Carthaginians tried to expand their hold on Sicily; with a smaller army, Timoleon defeated the Carthaginians and reestablished the traditional boundaries which separated the Greeks and Carthaginians, that is, the Carthaginians on the western portion of the island and the Greeks on the eastern portion.
Timoleon used his military strength to banish or kill the tyrants of the other Greek cities on Sicily and became the supreme Greek commander on the island; he established a constitution but that did not restrict or inhibit his authority; over fifty thousand Greek settlers immigrated to Sicily after Timoleon had pacified the island; Timoleon eventually resigned from the government because of failing health and died in Syracuse circa 330 BCE.
Timon of Phlius; a Greek philosopher; circa 320-230 BCE; only fragments of his work survive in the form of a poem called Silloi which mocks other philosophic schools.
An Athenian from the fifth century BCE; he was noted for his distrust of all men due to the mistreatment he perceived he had endured at the hands of his so called friends; he is mentioned by Plutarkh (Plutarch) in Lives: Antony.
Referred to as Kassiterides by the historian Herodotus and assumed to be the British Isles.
Called the Tin Islands because of the tin mines in Cornwall; Kassiterides literally means Tin-Producing; tin was essential for the manufacture of bronze which contains approximately eighty percent copper and twenty percent tin.
The son of Hagnias and one of the Argonauts; he was well skilled in the handling of ships and was urged by Athene (Athena) to join Iason (Jason) in the quest for the Golden Fleece.
An ancient city on the Peloponnesian Peninsula in Argolis; destroyed in 486 BCE by the Argives; the most ancient parts of the ruined city date back to the Bronze Age and the Palace of Tiryns still yields important archeological information.
The seer from Elis who won great respect from the Spartans and was offered citizenship in return for his oracular services with the Spartan army.
When Tisamenus consulted the oracle at Delphi about having children, the Pythia told him that he would win the five greatest contests; he assumed that she meant that he would become a champion athlete but the Spartans correctly interpreted the oracle to mean that he would correctly predict the outcome of five great battles; we can only ask why a seer of such repute would misinterpret the oracle at Delphi and then be honored by the Spartans with citizenship for his abilities to understand the omens from the Immortals.
Regardless of the reasoning of the Spartans, Tisamenus realized that he was in a position to bargain with the Spartans and demanded that his brother, Hegias, also be made a citizen; the Spartans were outraged at such temerity and withdrew their offer but, after the Persian invasion of 480 BCE, Tisamenus and Hegias were granted Spartan citizenship.
Tisamenus accompanied the Spartans and the other Greek allies when they faced the Persian army near the city of Plataea and read the omens of sacrifices before the fateful battle; he advised the allied Greeks to stand in defense but not to cross the Asopos river to engage the Persians; the Persians, after ten days of ill omens from their sacrifices, crossed the river to attack the Greeks and were soundly defeated.
The grandfather of Theras and the grandson of Polynikes (Polynices).
One of the Erinyes (Furies) who was born of the blood of Ouranos (the Heavens); her sisters are: Alekto (Alecto) and Megaera; also called: Eumenides (the kindly ones) and Semnai (the holy).
For more information on Tisiphone I suggest that you consult the Immortals section of this site.
Any of the children of Ouranos (the Heavens) and Gaia (Earth).
Ouranos saw the outrageous behavior of his children and gave them the name Titans. The name can be translated as Strainers or Stretchers and essentially means that Ouranos thought that they would eventually pay a heavy price for their indulgences because they Strained and Stretched the bounds of propriety and abused their seemingly limitless powers.
The Titans ruled heaven and earth one generation before Zeus and the other Olympians assumed control of all mortal and Immortal affairs.
The war between the Olympians and the Titans was the decisive event which separated the old gods from the new Olympian hierarchy; the war lasted for ten years before Zeus unleashed all his fury and, with the help of other faithful Immortals, drove the Titans into Tartaros (Tartarus).
The Titans listed in Theogony include:
The son of Laomedon and the brother of Priam and Hesione; the half-brother of Boukolion.
Tithonos fell in love with Eos (Dawn) and when she asked Zeus if Tithonos could be made immortal she forgot to ask for his eternal youth; when he became old and feeble, Eos locked him in a private room and closed the shining doors forever.
A tragedy written by Xenokles (Xenocles).
The queen of the Massagetae who defeated the Persian army and killed the Persian king, Kyrus the Great.
When Kyrus was trying to expand his empire into eastern Asia, he encountered the Massagetae and demanded their surrender; queen Tomyris refused to negotiate with Kyrus and urged him to leave her country in peace.
Kyrus, on the advice of his captive advisor, Kroesus, devised a subtle plan to defeat the Massagetae with little or no bloodshed; Kyrus pretended to withdraw his troops but left wagons full of food and wine for the Massagetae to capture; the Massagetae army, commanded by the queen’s son, Spargapises, came upon the food and wine and proceeded to eat and drink themselves into a stupor; Kyrus fell upon the befuddled Massagetae and took Spargapises as a hostage.
Kyrus again demanded queen Tomyris to surrender; Tomyris again refused to negotiate and promised to drown Kyrus in blood if he did not withdraw; the Persians persisted in their assault on the Massagetae but when the battle was joined, the Persians suffered a devastating defeat and, true to her promise, Tomyris killed Kyrus and put a bag full of blood over his head.
A tragedy by Sokrates (Socrates) produced circa 430 BCE.
A small warship rowed with 30 oars.
The three-pronged spear characteristic of Poseidon (lord of the Sea); fashioned by the nine dog-headed sea monsters called the Telkhines (Telchines).
A structural member of a Doric frieze, separating consecutive metopes and consisting typically of a rectangular block with two vertical grooves or glyphs and two chamfers or half groves at the sides, together counting as a third glyph and leaving three flat vertical bands on the face of the block.
An ancient name for the island of Sicily meaning, “having three promontories”; compounded from the words treis-ake, i.e. a trident.
A stand or base of various sizes having three legs and made of ceramics or metal; the seat of the priestess of Apollon at Delphi.
A mortal man who was the favorite of Demeter; he invented the plow and was the patron of agriculture; his name is closely associated with the Eleusinian Mysteries.
A large warship rowed with 170 oars arranged in three tiers on each side of the ship, one above the other.
A symbolic figure with three human legs arranged symmetrically from a common center; from the Greek word Triskeles meaning Three-Legged.
A mythical lake near the Mediterranean coast of Libya.
Lake Trito was named after the half-fish, half-man shaped god, Triton, who guards the lake; the goddess Athene (Athena) is often called Tritogeneia because after she sprang from Zeus’ head, she was taken to the lake Trito and nurtured by the nymphs of the lake; in this way she is also referred to as Tritonian Athene; also called the Tritonian Lake.
A name given to Athene (Athena) because after she sprang from Zeus’ head, she was taken to the Libyan lake, Trito, and nurtured by the nymphs of the lake; in this way she is also referred to as Tritonian Athene.
The inhabitants of the area around the lake say that Athene was actually the daughter of Poseidon (lord of the Sea) and the Tritonian lake and, after a dispute with her father, Athene was adopted by Zeus as his own daughter.
A son of Poseidon (lord of the Sea) and the Nereid, Amphitrite; represented as having the head and body of a man with the tail of a fish and using a conch shell as a trumpet.
When the Argonauts were stranded in Libya, on the shores of the Tritonian Lake, they set out a tripod as an offering to Apollon; Triton, in the guise of a young man, appeared to them and offered a clod of earth because he had no other gift to offer in that barren land; he then showed them the course they should take to reach the sea; the clod of earth would later prove to be the “seed” for an island that one of the Argonauts’ ancestors would populate and call Thera.
The tripod which was offered to Apollon was to remain in the precincts of the Tritonian lake until the Greeks came to reclaim it; at that time the Greeks were to establish one hundred settlements on the lake’s shores; the Libyans believed this prophecy to be true and, to avoid an influx of Greeks, hid the tripod so that it could never be recovered.
Usually called The Troad; the region in northwestern Asia Minor surrounding ancient Troy; the names, The Troad and Troy, are derived from the grandson of Zeus, Tros.
An ancient town on the Peloponnesian Peninsula in the district of Argolis near the Saronic Gulf; regarded as the birthplace of Theseus.
The cave dwellers of northern Africa mentioned by the historian Herodotus and sometimes called simply the cave-dwelling Ethiopians (Aithiopians); the term Troglodyte could literally mean, “one who creeps into holes.”
One of the sons of king Priam and Hekabe (Hecabe); he was killed by Akhilleus (Achilles) during the siege of Troy.
Pertaining to the ancient city of Troy or its inhabitants.
The destruction of Troy was only accomplished by use of the Trojan Horse which is also called the Wooden Horse.
After ten years of an unsuccessful siege on the walls of Troy, the Greeks devised a plan by which they would pretend to abandon the war and retreat back to their homes; the Greeks built a hollow Wooden Horse, which was filled with Greek soldiers, and left it in front of the gates of Troy; the Trojans saw the horse and debated its significance and fate.
Some of the Trojans thought that the Wooden Horse was a symbol of peace and a tribute to the goddess Athene (Athena); others thought that the Wooden Horse was a trick and should be burned where it stood; the Trojan seer, Laokoon (Laocoon), tried to warn king Priam that the Wooden Horse was a trick and not a peace offering but Poseidon (lord of the Sea), who was clearly on the side of the Greeks, sent one of his giant sea-serpents to kill Laokoon and one (or both) of his sons; Priam assumed that Laokoon was killed because he was giving false prophecy and ordered that the Wooden Horse be brought inside the walls of the city.
The Trojans were ecstatic; they believed that they had survived ten years of fierce fighting and were now ready to accept the Greek’s peace offering; after a day and night of celebration, the Trojans collapsed into a state of wine-induced exhaustion; the Greeks inside the Wooden Horse emerged from hiding and fell upon the unsuspecting Trojans; once the gates of the city were opened, the entire Greek army entered the city and leveled the walls of Troy and killed or enslaved every Trojan citizen.
A ten year war that ended with the destruction of the city of Troy and the death of thousands of Achaean (Achaean) men.
The story of the war was told most eloquently in The Iliad by Homer and elaborated in the (mostly lost) Epic Cycle; the actual battle for Troy has been tentatively placed at 1250 BCE.
The cause and perpetuation of the war was blamed on the Olympians; Aphrodite (goddess of Love) enchanted Helen of Argos and Alexandros (Paris) of Troy; Helen took her dowry and fled with Alexandros to Troy; Helen’s husband, Menelaos (Menelaus), and his brother Agamemnon, organized a confederation of Greeks and laid siege to Troy; after ten years of bitter fighting, the Greeks finally gained entrance to Troy and killed or enslaved all the citizens.
A tragedy by Euripides produced in 415 BCE.
I personally recommend the translations compiled by Richmond Lattimore and David Grene; you can find this and other plays by Euripides in the 882 section of your local library or you can order them from the Book Shop on this site which is linked to Amazon.com.
He and his brother, Agamedes, were the sons of Erginos; they were renowned architects and credited with building the temple of Apollon in the city of Delphi.
The two brothers were also said to have built the treasury of Hyrieus (or Augeas) and to have designed it in such a way that they could come back later and rob it; during the attempted robbery, Agamedes became ensnared in a trap inside the treasury and Trophonius was unable to free him; in a desperate attempt to conceal his brother’s identity, Trophonius cut off Agamedes’ head.
Afterwards, near the city of Lebadeia in Boeotia, Trophonius was swallowed by the earth and an oracular site was established in his name; supplicants would enter the cave and, after receiving the prophecies and omens imparted by Trophonius, would emerge pale and shaken.
The lord of the Trojans; he was the grandson of Zeus and the great-grandfather of Priam, who was the last king of Troy;; his father, Dardanos (Dardanus), was the son of Zeus; The Troad and Troy were named after Tros.
An ancient Greek city in Asia Minor in the province of Mysia between the rivers Skamandros (Scamander) and Simoeis (Simois); located near the coast of the Aegean Sea; an hours walk southwest of the Hellespont (Dardanelles Straits); according to The Iliad, Troy was founded by the grandson of Zeus, Tros, and thrived for three generations until the city was sacked under the reign of king Priam; the Troy of The Iliad was utterly destroyed circa 1250 BCE by the mainland Greeks and never re-established to it’s former glory or wealth.
After over a hundred years of excavation, the different layers of the ruins of ancient Troy have been divided into nine classifications designated with the Roman numerals I-IX with subdivisions of each classification indicated by lower cases letters, i.e. the original foundations of Troy are named Ia-Ik; the city we normally think of as the Troy of The Iliad is called Troy VI, i.e. Troy six, and is assumed to have been destroyed circa 1250 BCE.
The geographic location of Troy was vitally important to it’s continued habitation and prosperity; the fortunes of the Trojans fluctuated over the centuries but the city was continuously occupied and constantly revitalized after either natural disasters or armed conquests reduced the city to rubble and dust; the walls and buildings of the various cities were made of mud-brick and each successive city was built on the ruins of the previous foundations; the mud-brick construction made it impossible to reuse the raw materials and so the old city was simply leveled and the newest incarnation of the city was built on the ruins and therefore each new city was elevated slightly higher than the preceding city.
The original foundations of the city date to the Early Bronze Age circa 2900-2450 BCE; it was a modest city and covered an area approximately 100 yards in diameter; this phase of Troy is commonly known as Troy Ia-k.
The second incarnation of Troy, designated Troy IIa-h, also existed in the Early Bronze Age and lasted from circa 2450-2200 BCE; the size of the city increased and covered an area of approximately 900 square yards; this Troy, with towers and a megaron, also included a settlement outside the city’s circuit walls; at least two phases of Troy II were destroyed by what appears to be severe natural disasters; level IIg is called the Burnt City because the condition of the rubble strongly suggests that the wooden parts of the city were not merely torn down, but rather burned to the ground.
Troy III existed from circa 2200-1700 BCE and is divided into the subdivisions a-d; this was during the Middle Bronze Age and the city doubled in size.
The cities of Troy IVa-e and Va-d seem to be less prosperous for the rulers and citizens of the city; these subdivisions are generally included in the time period that covers Troy III.
Homer’s Troy, Troy VI, dates from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and consists of levels a-h; this was probably the city that the Greeks destroyed after their ten year siege; the city was only slightly larger than Troy III but there are indications that this phase of the city was the most prosperous incarnation yet; the circuit wall was longer and thicker than any previous city wall and the outer settlement was larger than ever before; the city supported a population of five to ten thousand permanent residents; also of significance during this phase of Troy’s development is the fact that excavators found horse skeletons in the ruins of these levels and corresponds to Homer’s characterization of ‘the horse taming Trojans.’
Troy VII, like the previous reconstructions of the city, was built on the ruins of preceding city; Troy VII existed in the Late Bronze Age, i.e. 1250-1050 BCE; although there are those who believe that this is the Troy of The Iliad, it has been pointed out that Troy VII appears to have been hastily built and the workmanship seems inferior to the prosperous city and outer settlement of Troy VI; the final phase of Troy VII was destroyed by fire and it is assumed that this is a sign of conquest rather than natural disaster.
Troy VIII is considered to be the last Greek attempt to keep Troy as a permanent settlement and, although a smaller and more humble city, might have lasted until as late as 85 BCE; Troy VIII is assumed to have been populated by settlers from Thessaly or another northern Greek state; the historian, Herodotus (484?-425? BCE) (book 7, chapter 43), mentions that the Persian king, Xerxes, stopped at Troy on his way to conquer Greece and sacrificed one thousand cattle to the goddess, Athene (Athena) of Ilion; the Magi, the priests and magicians who accompanied Xerxes, made libations to the ancient heroes of Troy; Herodotus then makes a strange statement, he says that Xerxes and his company were seized with fear during the night but he does not elaborate as to the cause of their fear; also, Herodotus does not elaborate as to the population of Troy when Xerxes arrived or comment as to the physical condition of the city; Alexander the Great is also said to have visited Troy on his way to conquer the Persian Empire; the city was finally leveled in 85 BCE by the Roman legate, Flavius Fimbria.
Troy remained a pile of rubble until Julius Caesar visited the city circa 48 BCE; he began a rebuilding project which was continued by his successor, Caesar Augustus; the Romans believed that Troy was the mother-city of Rome because after the Trojan hero, Aineias (Aeneas), fled Troy, he found his way to the Italian peninsula and eventually united the tribes of Latium to form the basis of the Roman Empire.
Despite the historical references to Troy by historians such as Herodotus and Arrian, the actual existence of the city seems to have been considered a mere myth by serious scholars until the mid-eighteenth century; the most notable, and perhaps notorious, true believer in the actual existence of Troy was the wealthy businessman named Heinrich Schliemann; although Schliemann may not have been the first man to excavate the ruins of Troy, he is certainly the most famous; since his monumental and highly publicized discovery circa 1870 CE, Troy has become a well researched archeological site as well a popular tourist attraction.
One of the finest books on the subject is Troy c. 1700-1250 BC, by Fields, Spedaliere and Spedaliere, (ISBN 0841767034); the text is engaging and the illustrations are excellent.
Omados or Homados; the Spirit of Tumult or Battle-Noise.
The modern name for the area generally known as Asia Minor.
An ancient people of the Mediterranean region variously identified with the Lydians, the Etruscans or the Trojans.
A series of municipal laws which were found inscribed on a wall in the city of Gortyn on the island of Crete and are assumed to be from the fourth or fifth century BCE; they are also referred to as the Code of Gortyn.
The son of Oineus, but, because he committed murder, he was forced to flee his home and take refuge in Argos.
The king of Argos, Adrastus, welcomed him and allowed him to marry his daughter, Deipyle; he was introduced to Polynikes (Polynices) while he was in Argos and was enlisted in the army that was dubbed the Seven Against Thebes; seven armies were assembled in order to assist Polynikes in his attempt to reclaim the throne of the city of Thebes.
Tydeus died in the attempt to capture the city but, ten years after the failed attempt to take Thebes by the Seven, his son, Diomedes, joined an expedition, called the Epigoni, and successfully captured the city.
An Okeanid, i.e. one of the three thousand daughters of Okeanos (Ocean) and Tethys; she was ancient Greek goddess of Chance or Fortune; her name literally means Luck or Success.
Zeus gave the Okeanids, Apollon and the Rivers the special obligation of having the young in their keeping.
The king of Sparta and husband of Leda; it’s not clear if Tyndareus or Zeus was the father of Leda’s children but Kastor (Castor), Polydeukes (Polydeuces or Pollux) and Helen are assumed to be the children of Zeus while Klytemnestra (Clytemnestra) is assumed to be the daughter of Tyndareus.
Another name for the Dioskuri (Dioscuri), i.e., Kastor (Castor) and Polydeukes (Polydeuces); the name implies that they are from the family of Tyndareus, who was the stepfather of the twins (Zeus was their actual father).
The son of Hera; a snake bodied monster associated with storms; the creature that Apollon killed when he established his shrine at Delphi.
Typhon joined in love with the nymph-serpent, Ekhidna (Echidna) and fathered the two-headed dog, Orthos, the hound of Hades, Kerberos (Cerberus) and the Hydra.
The youngest child of Gaia (Earth) and Tartaros (Tartarus).
Typhoeus was a gigantic creature with a hundred snake-heads sprouting from his enormous shoulders; each snake-head had eyes that glittered with fire and each of the snake-heads could create sounds that were subtle or horrible, from an echoing whistle to the bellowing of bulls; Typhoeus was strong and willful enough to have ruled the other Immortals if Zeus had not perceived the threat he posed and attacked him with unchecked fury; after a fierce battle, Typhoeus was imprisoned under the earth; all ill-favored winds that plague human endeavors issue from Typhoeus.
A tyrant, to the ancient Greeks, was nothing more than a ruler or king; there were good tyrants and bad tyrants; a tyrant usually had absolute power but traditionally had councils and committees of citizens to advise him on political and religious decisions.
A river in Skythia (Scythia); during Herodotus’ travels, he was shown a footprint in a rock near the river Tyras that was said to have been left by the hero, Herakles (Heracles).
An ancient seaport of Phoenicia; the city was made famous by the renown of its navigators and traders; the city was the most difficult obstacle to Alexander the Great when he marched on Syria; the city fell to Alexander in 332 BCE.
The modern city of Sur was built on the site of ancient Tyre.
The daughter of the king of Elis, Salmoneus; she was seduced by Poseidon (lord of the Sea) and bore him two sons, Neleus and Pelias.
Tyro married Kretheus (Cretheus) and was the mother of Aeson and thus the grandmother of Iason (Jason); she was one of the “shades” which Odysseus evoked when he went to the entrance to the Underworld.
The body of water that is bounded by Italy on the east, the islands of Corsica and Sardinia on the west and Sicily on the south.
A Greek poet from the city of Sparta; fl. seventh century BCE.
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