A to Aegyptus Aello to Agesilaus I Agesilaus II to Akhaia Akhaian to Alkman Alkmene to Anaetius Anakeion to Apaturia Apeliotes to Argos Argus to Arkhidike Arkhilokhos to Astyanax Astydameia to Azov

Apeliotes to Argos


The personification of South-East Wind.

There are two types of winds:

  1. The divinely created winds, i.e. Boreas (North Wind), Notos (South Wind), Zephyros (West Wind) and the Etesian winds, and
  2. The ill-favored winds that were created by the monster, Typhoeus, when Zeus imprisoned him under the earth.

The divinely created winds nourish and bless the earth but the winds of Typhoeus are wild and destructive.

Apeliotes would be one of the winds created by Typhoeus.

  • Theogony, lines 869-880
  • Aphaistos

    Usually rendered as Hephaistos (Hephaestus); the lame son of Hera.

    For more detailed information on Hephaistos I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.


    The husband of Arene and father of the Argonauts: Idas and Lynkeus (Lynceus); the brother of Tyndareus.


    Literally meaning To Launch or Send Off; the name given to a place on the Cape of Magnesia where it is believed that Herakles was left behind by Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts when they went in search of the Golden Fleece.

    The definitive source for the quest for the Golden Fleece, Argonautika, implies that Herakles was left in Mysia, which is in Asia Minor; this confusion might be because there are two countries named Magnesia, one on the coast of the Greek mainland and the other in Asia Minor.

    Aphetae was also important because, when the Persians invaded Greece in 480 BCE, they sheltered from a storm in the Gulf of Pagasai (Pagasae) and anchored near Aphetae.


    A small town in the district of Attika (Attica) approximately 20 miles (32 kilometers) north and east of the city of Athens.


    The goddess of Love; also called Anadyomene, Kypros (Cyprus), Aphrodite Orania, i.e. Heavenly Aphrodite, and Kythereia (Cytherea).

    Aphrodite was born of the mixture of ocean foam and the blood of the deposed god, Ouranos (the Heavens).

    For more detailed information on Aphrodite I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.

    Aphrodite Orania
    Aphrodite Urania

    Heavenly Aphrodite.

    The temple of Aphrodite Orania in the city of Askalon (Ascalon) in ancient Syria was thought to be the oldest shrine to the goddess on earth; when the Skythians (Scythians) invaded what we call the middle east, they marched through Syria; most of the soldiers did not plunder or harm the Syrians but some of them looted the ancient temple of Aphrodite Orania; the soldiers and their descendants were afflicted by the goddess of Love with a disease which is generally called the “female sickness” and causes loss of virility; the Skythians call the victims of this illness, Enareis, i.e. hermaphrodite.


    A term meaning the Peloponnesus, i.e. the Peloponnesian Peninsula; probably named after the legendary king Apis.

    Apis (1)

    A legendary king of the Peloponnesian Peninsula; the peninsula was called Apios after king Apis.

    Apis (2)

    Apis Bull; an Egyptian deity with the physical characteristics of a bull; associated with the Greek bull-man, Epaphos (Epaphus).

    Apis was sometimes depicted in the shape of a man with the head of a bull and as a bull with the disk of the Sun in his horns but his common shape was simply that of a bull; worshiped in Egypt as early as 3000 BCE as a symbol of fertility, then as Apis-Atum in relation to the Sun and finally becoming associated with the god Osiris as Osiris-Apis, guardian of the dead.

    When the historian Herodotus (484?-425? BCE) was in Egypt, he encountered the priests of Apis examining and sacrificing an Apis Bull; the bull representing Apis had to be perfect in all ways and any imperfection would disqualify the sacrificial victim; an Apis Bull would be born at random intervals and the birth of a perfect bull was an occasion for celebration and sacrifice; the bull as doused in wine and the throat was cut; the body of the beast was flayed and eaten but the head was either thrown onto to Nile river or sold to any Greeks who happened to be nearby; the ritual of the sacrifice as intended to infuse the head of the bull with the evil of the worshipers and therefore could not be eaten; female cattle were never sacrificed because they were the Egyptian equivalent of the maiden Io, and thus sacred.

    When the Persian king Kambyses (Cambyses) was in Egypt (circa 524 BCE), an Apis Bull was born and the Egyptians donned their best attire for the celebration; Kambyses assumed that the celebration was because of his recent military humiliations and accused the priests of mocking him; he had the sacred animal brought before him and stabbed it in the thigh with a dagger and ridiculed the priests for worshiping a frail and mortal deity; when the Apis Bull died, Kambyses proclaimed that anyone who continued the celebration would be killed.

    The Apis Bull that Kambyses killed was actually just a calf; the animal was considered to be divine because it was born to an infertile cow which had been struck by lightening and then became pregnant; the calf was black with a white triangle on its forehead, a white eagle mark on its back, double hair on its tail and a knot under its tongue; the combination of these signs made it indisputable that the animal was sacred.

    Apis (3)

    An ancient city in southwestern Egypt near the Libyan border.

    The people of Apis, and another city named Marea, believed that they were Libyans and not Egyptians; they wanted to be exempt from Egyptian religious law, in particular the law against eating the flesh of cows, so they asked the oracle at Ammon for a verdict on this matter and were told that they were Egyptians because they drank from the waters of the Nile river.


    A epithet for Zeus as Best-Ruling.


    A Greek painter of the fifth century BCE who introduced the style of three-dimensional painting with the innovation of shadows; none of his work survives and he is known only through literary sources.

    Apollodorus Dysklus
    Apollodorus Dysclus

    A Greek grammarian; died circa 140 BCE.

    Apollodorus is responsible for the numbering of the Labors of Herakles (Heracles); up until his time the chronology of the Labors was not specific but he recorded the sequence of the Labors which we still use.


    The son of Zeus and Leto; brother of Artemis.

    Apollon was the patron of the oracle at the city of Delphi; numerous temples scattered throughout Greece and Asia Minor were dedicated in his honor.

    The belief in Apollon’s abilities to convey wisdom and prophecy transcended national boundaries and religions; emissaries from all corners of the civilized world made pilgrimages to the various shrines of Apollon.

    For more detailed information on Apollon I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.

    Apollon Lykeios

    A name for Apollon referring to the Temple of Apollon in the Lykeum (Lyceum), i.e. a gymnasium, noted for its covered walkways, located in an eastern suburb of the city of Athens.

    Apollon Patroos

    A representation of Apollon as the protector of his father, i.e. Zeus; the statue of Apollon Patroos at Athens is attributed to the master sculptor, Euphranor.

    Apollon Smintheus

    Apollon as the Mouse God, i.e. he sends plagues in the guise of mice that were thought to carry pestilence.

    Apollonius of Perga

    (circa 262-190 BCE) A Greek mathematician whose innovative work in geometry can still be found in his extant works: On Conic Sections and On Section of a Ratio.

    Apollonius coined the terms Ellipse, Parabola and Hyperbola and developed theories on Epicycles and Eccentrics to explain the orbits of the planets; he was born in Asia Minor and educated in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Apollonius of Rhodes
    Apollonios Rhodios

    (circa 295-215 BCE) A Greek epic poet born in Alexandria, Egypt where he was the director of the Library of Alexandria (circa 250 BCE).

    His most famous work, Argonautika (Argonautica), was a four-volume epic of the adventures of Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts.

    An argument with his teacher, Kallimakhus (Callimachus), over literary style forced Apollonius to flee Egypt and seek citizenship on the island of Rhodes, thus he is known as Apollonius of Rhodes.

    I highly recommend The Argonautika translated by Peter Green (ISBN 0520076877); this book can be found at your library in the 883 section or you can order The Argonautika from our Book Shop which is linked to


    A short work by Plato that was supposed to be the speech given by Sokrates (Socrates) in his own defense at his trial in 399 BCE in which Sokrates denied that he had corrupted the religion and youth of Athens; despite Plato’s implied eloquence of Sokrates’ speech, his many enemies prevailed and he was condemned to death.


    The pioneer of any reform movement; Apostle literally means “one who is sent out.”

    Apples of the Hesperides

    The golden apples which were given to Hera by Gaia (Earth) as a wedding gift when she married her brother, Zeus.

    The golden apples were in the safekeeping of the Hesperides, i.e. the daughters of Nyx (Night), and the dragon, Ladon, in the far West beyond the Pillars of Herakles (Heracles).

    As one of his Twelve Labors, Herakles was required to retrieve the golden apples from the Hesperides and return them to his cousin, Eurystheus.


    The people who were the bitter enemies of the Dolonki and fought them for possession of the Khersonese (Chersonese).

    At the advice of the oracle at Delphi, the Dolonki made the Athenian, Miltiades, their tyrant (circa 540 BCE); Miltiades built a wall which effectively kept the Apsinthians from continuing their war with the Dolonki.


    A son of king Aietes (Aeetes) and the nymph, Asterodeia; half-brother of the sorceress, Medea and Khalkiope (Chalciope).

    The people of Kolkhis (Colchis) called him Phaethon (which may be rendered as Shining One); after Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts took the Golden Fleece and fled Kolkhis, Aietes sent Apsyrtos with a fleet of ships to capture them; Apsyrtos’ half-sister, Medea, assisted Iason with her magical powers and went with him when he fled.

    When the Argonauts were finally cornered and feared a direct confrontation with Apsyrtos and his numerous ships, Iason and Medea devised a treacherous plan where they would meet with Apsyrtos and she would pretend surrender herself to him while Iason waited in ambush; as Medea was talking to Apsyrtos, Iason attacked and killed him; without a leader, the pursuers lost their momentum and the Argonauts made their escape.


    A general term for the deserts east of Egypt and south of Phoenicia.

    Arabia was mentioned by the historian, Herodotus, and the people of Arabia were clearly distinguished from other nations but it wasn’t until the time of Alexander the Great (circa 330 BCE) that the land of Arabia became fully defined by the Greeks; Herodotus states that Arabia is the furthest to the south of all the world.

    One of the most significant things that Herodotus says about Arabia is that the sacred bird, the phoinix, originated there.

    Herodotus also mentions a winged serpent which attempted to fly from Arabia into Egypt each spring but were met at a pass in the desert by the sacred Egyptian bird, the Ibis, and killed; these flying serpents also guarded the frankincense plant; the aromatic storax plant was burned to drive the serpents away from the frankincense and allow the Arabians to harvest the profitable export.

    Arabian Gulf

    The body of water known to the ancient Greeks as the Erythraean Sea; the name, Erythraean, implies the color of blood and was used to designate the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and, later, the Persian Gulf.


    A woman from Lydia who challenged the goddess Athene (Athena) to a weaving contest and was changed into a spider for her presumptuousness.

    From her name we get the English word, Arachnid, to designate natures ultimate weavers, the spider; an Arachnid can be a spider, scorpion, mite or tick.


    The son of the comic dramatist, Aristophanes.

    It was recorded that his father gave Araros two plays to produce but they are lost to us.


    Aratus of Sikyon (Sicyon) (271-213 BCE); A Greek general and leader of the Akhaian (Achaean) League.


    An ancient city of Assyria which was east of the Tigris River on the site of modern Erbil (also spelled Arbil).

    Arbela was the headquarters of the Persian king, Darius III, before his defeat by Alexander the Great at Gaugamela in 331 BCE.


    The Arbitration; a comedy (circa 300 BCE) by Menander which is extant only as a fragment.


    An ancient language group of eastern Greece comprising Arcadian, Pamphylian and Cypriot.

    Archaic Period

    The term, archaic, generally implies something that is no longer current or applicable.

    The Archaic Period of ancient Greece was roughly from 1100 BCE until the sack of Athens by the Persians in 480 BCE and denotes the artistic and literary style which preceded the Classical Age.

    The term archaic comes from the Greek word arkhaikos which literally means old fashioned, antiquated or primitive but most critics do not use the term in a negative sense, they simply use the word to denote an older but not necessarily inferior style.

    Many different authors and historians have chosen different dates for the beginning of the Archaic Period but, generally speaking, we may push the dawn of archaic styles all the way back to the Bronze Age (3000-1200 BCE) and the foundations of Greek culture.

    Our conception of archaic Greece cannot be easily defined because poets and artists surely saw the world in the same way in which we see it but they simply chose to represent it in a manner that was both unrealistic and simplistic; statues in profile and poems with highly embellished characters were not true representations of the subjects they depicted but they were sufficient to express the intent of the artists and the themes they wished to convey.

    The sack of Athens in 480 BCE was a devastating event but, from the ashes of the ruined city, a new vitality emerged that changed the way the Greeks viewed themselves and the manner in which they chose to reflect their world in art and literature; the sack of Athens is a convenient place in history to mark the end of the Archaic Period and the beginning of what we call the Classical Age; as in all classifications, the transition from one style, or age, into another cannot be pinpointed to a clearly defined moment or event but, for the sake of discussion, the Archaic Period can be said to have perished in the flames of the Akropolis (Acropolis) and risen, like the phoinix (phoenix), as the next evolutionary step of a process that had no beginning and whose ending can only be realized in the imagination of generations yet to come.

    Of the many books on the subject of archaic Greece, I personally recommend The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. by Jeffery M. Hurwit (ISBN 080149401X); if you cannot find this book at your library, you can order it through the Book Shop on this site which is linked to

    Archilochian Meter

    A form of poetic meter devised by Arkhilokhos (Archilochos) in which various types of meter are combined in the same line or couplet.


    The lowermost member of a classical entablature resting originally upon columns; an entablature is any raised architectural member.


    The star that was named after Arkas (Arcas), the ancestor of the Arkadians (Arcadians); Arcturus means Guardian of the Bear; the bear he is guarding is his mother, Kallisto (Callisto), i.e. Ursa Major (the Great Bear).

    Arcturus is the brightest star in the constellation Bootes (the Wagoner), 36 light years from our solar system.


    A river god; one on the sons of Tethys and Okeanos (Ocean).

    Zeus gave the Rivers, Apollon and the Okeanids the special obligation of having the young in their keeping.

    The name, Ardeskos, may also be rendered as Ardeskus or Ardescus.

    Areios (1)

    A name for the Hill of Ares on the west side of the Akropolis (Acropolis) in Athens where the highest court held its deliberations for capital crimes such as murder.

    Areios means Warlike or Martial.

    Areios (2)

    Areios and Talaos were the sons of Bias and Pero; both brothers were Argonauts.

    Areios means Warlike or Martial.


    The wife of Aphareus and the mother of the Argonauts, Idas and Lynkeus (Lynceus).

    Areopagus (1)
    Areios Pagos

    A hill in Athens west of the Akropolis (Acropolis).

    The name, Areopagus, literally means Warlike District but is sometimes rendered simply as Rocky Hill.

    Areopagus (2)

    The council that met on the hill, Areopagus, on the Akropolis (Acropolis) in the city of Athens.

    Originally this council had vast public functions but later it became a purely judicial body.


    The god of War.

    A son of Zeus and Hera; one of the Olympians; Ares was honored because he gave men the strength to defend their cities and homes but he was also feared because men who were inflamed by his war-craft often caused more harm than good.

    There is an excellent line in the poem Seven Against Thebes where king Eteokles (Eteocles) says, “murdered men are nourishment for the War God”; in The Iliad (book 5, line 889), Zeus says to Ares, “you are the most hateful of all gods.”

    For more detailed information on Ares I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.


    One of the Thirty Tyrants elected to rule the city of Athens after the end of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE).

    Having lost the war to the Spartans, the citizens of Athens elected thirty men to lead the new post-war government; these men became known as the Thirty Tyrants; the short lived government they comprised was an oligarchy.

    The tyrants immediately began to prosecute Athenians who had been Spartan informers and collaborators during the long, hard war; the punishment of the guilty seemed appropriate to the common citizens and aristocrats alike but it soon became clear that the executions and banishments were going beyond the bounds of necessity or prudence; open hostilities soon developed between members of the Thirty and their authority and rule came to an end after one year.

    Arete (1)

    The wife of Alkinoos (Alcinous), king of the Phaiakians (Phaeacians) and mother of Nausikaa (Nausicaa) and Laodamas.

    Arete and Alkinoos welcomed Odysseus when Nausikaa brought him to their house as a stranger; Odysseus was slow to reveal his true identity but when Arete and Alkinoos found out who he was they gave him many gifts and a ship to carry him home to Ithaka (Ithaca).

    Arete and Alkinoos also gave comfort to the Argonauts when they were being chased by the soldiers of king Aietes (Aeetes) under the condition that Iason (Jason) marry Medea.

    The name Arete implies Goodness and Virtue.

    Arete (2)

    One of the daughters of Dionysus the Elder and wife of her uncle, Dion.


    A nymph who was changed into a spring by the goddess Artemis to save her when she was being pursued by the river god Alpheius.

    There is some confusion as to the exact location of Arethusa’s spring; it is either:

    1. On the island of Ortygia which is located in the harbor of the city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily, or
    2. Near the city of Khalkis (Chalcis) on the island of Euboea.

    One of the sons of Nestor and Eurydike (Eurydice).

    Areus II
    Araios II

    The twenty-sixth Agiadai king of the city of Sparta who ruled from 262-254 BCE.

    Sparta traditionally had two kings who ruled jointly; one king was required to be a descendant of king Agis I and the other was required to be a descendant of king Eurypon (respectively known as the Agiadai and the Eurypontidai).

    Beginning with Leonidas I (the sixteenth Agiadai king who ruled from 490-480 BCE) the names and dates for the Spartan kings became a part of the historical record and are generally accepted as factual; prior to Leonidas I the dates for the Spartan kings are extrapolated back from historical times to approximate the time periods in which each king ruled.

    Areus I
    Araios I

    The twenty-forth Agiadai king of the city of Sparta who ruled from 309-265 BCE.

    Sparta traditionally had two kings who ruled jointly; one king was required to be a descendant of king Agis I and the other was required to be a descendant of king Eurypon (respectively known as the Agiadai and the Eurypontidai).

    Beginning with Leonidas I (the sixteenth Agiadai king who ruled from 490-480 BCE) the names and dates for the Spartan kings became a part of the historical record and are generally accepted as factual; prior to Leonidas I the dates for the Spartan kings are extrapolated back from historical times to approximate the time periods in which each king ruled.


    One of the four ancient tribes of Ionia.

    The name, Argadeis, literally means Workman or Laborers.

    The other tribes were known as: Aigikoreis (Aigicoreis) (Goat-Herds or Goat-Feeders);

    Oplites (Hoplites) (Men in Armor); and

    Teleontes (Geleontes) (Farmers).


    The daughter of the king of Argos, Adrastus, and the wife of Polynikes (Polynices); the mother of Thersandros.


    Another name for Hermes meaning the Slayer of Argos, i.e. the hundred-eyed Argus who was set to watch over the heifer maiden, Io.

    For more detailed information on Hermes I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.


    The stubborn-hearted cyclops.

    One of the sons of Gaia (Earth); he and his brothers, Brontes and Steropes, are the Titans who forge the thunderbolts for Zeus.

    The name, Arges, means, Vivid One.


    Another name for Notos (South Wind) meaning Clearing or Brightening.

    Argestes is one of the sons of Eos (Dawn) and Astraios; his brothers are: Zephyros (West Wind) and Boreas (North Wind).


    Of or pertaining to the district of Argos on the eastern Peloponnesian Peninsula; an Argive is a native of Argos.


    The general term for all Greeks in The Iliad and The Odyssey.

    The term Argive and Akhaian (Achaean) are, for all practical purposes, interchangeable.


    The name of the ship in which Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts sailed on their quest for the Golden Fleece.

    The craft was built by a man named Argus and inspired by the goddess Athene (Athena); the name literally means Swift.

    The ship was built at the foot of Mount Pelion and, presumably, made of wood from the mountain.

    Argolid Plain

    A valley south of the city of Mykenai (Mycenae) in Argolis on the Peloponnesian Peninsula.


    An ancient district of Greece in the far-eastern portion of the Peloponnesian Peninsula.


    A four-volume epic of the adventures of Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts written by Apollonius of Rhodes in the third century BCE.

    For a summary of the Argonautika, see Golden Fleece; I highly recommend Argonautika translated by Peter Green (ISBN 0520076877); this book can be found at your library in the 883 section or you can order Argonautika from our Book Shop which is linked to


    The collective name for the most celebrated band of heroes ever assembled in ancient Greece.

    When king Pelias gave Iason (Jason) the seemingly impossible task of retrieving the Golden Fleece from the distant land of Kolkhis (Colchis), Iason sent out an appeal for the bravest men in Greece to assist him; the Argonauts were the men who answered the summons.

    Their ship was named Argo and thus they were dubbed Argonauts because Argo + nautes = Argo-seamen.

    The date of the quest for the Golden Fleece is a matter of speculation but we are given several hints as to the chronology of events: Herakles (Heracles) was forced to leave the quest for the Fleece and return to his Twelve Labors and we know that after his completion of the Ninth Labor (Retrieve the Belt of the Amazon Queen, Hippolyte), Herakles stopped at the city of Troy while king Laomedon ruled the city; Laomedon was the father of the last king of Troy, Priam; we can count backwards from the sack of Troy (circa 1250 BCE) and perhaps determine the date of the quest for the Golden Fleece; we know that the siege of Troy lasted for ten years, that would push the date back to 1260 BCE; we know that Priam was an old man when Troy was sacked (perhaps 50 years old); that might put the quest for the Golden Fleece back another 25 or so years, i.e. the quest for the Golden Fleece might be dated as circa 1285 BCE.

    We must remember that the sack of Troy, as related in The Iliad, was thought to be a “myth” until Heinrich Schliemann took the “story” seriously and, after a methodical search, found the ruins of Troy; I’m suggesting that the Garden of Ares, where the Golden Fleece was kept, might be an actual place with datable artifacts that have yet to be discovered.

    The Argonauts were: Admetos, Aithalides, Akastos (Acastus), Amphidamas, Amphion, Ankaios (Ancaios) (son of Lykurgos), Ankaios (Ancaios) (son of Poseidon), Areios, Argus, Asterion, Asterios, Augeias, Boutes, Ekhion (Echion), Erginos, Erybotes, Erytos, Euphemos, Eurydamas, Eurytion, Herakles, Hylas, Idas, Idmon, Iphiklos (Iphiclos), Iphitus (son of Eurytus), Iphitus (son of Klytoneos), Kalais (Calais), Kanthos (Canthos), Kastor (Castor), Kepheus (Cepheus), Klytios (Clytios), Koronus (Coronus), Laokoon (Laocoon), Leodokos (Leodocos), Lynkeus (Lynceus), Meleagros, Menoitios, Mopsos, Nauplios, Oileus, Orpheus, Palaemonius, Peleus, Periklymenos (Periclymenos), Phaleros, Phleias, Polydeukes (Polydeuces or Pollux), Polyphemos (Polyphemus) (son of Eilatos), Talaos, Telamon, Tiphys and Zetes; before they reached Kolkhis (Colchis) the Argonauts were joined by the sons of Phrixus: Argus, Kytissoros (Cytissoros), Phrontis and Melas.


    An ancient city in southeastern Greece on the Gulf of Argolis.

    Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta, Athens and Korinth (Corinth).

    Several cities were named Argos but the Peloponnesian Argos was the most famous.

    Approximate east longitude 22.44 and north latitude 37.39.

    Apeliotes to Argos

    A to Aegyptus Aello to Agesilaus I Agesilaus II to Akhaia Akhaian to Alkman Alkmene to Anaetius Anakeion to Apaturia Apeliotes to Argos Argus to Arkhidike Arkhilokhos to Astyanax Astydameia to Azov


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