C to Celaeno Celeos to Chthonios Chthonios to Confusion Copais to Cymatolege Cyme to Cyzicos

Copais to Cymatolege


Lake Kopais; a relatively large lake on the Greek mainland in northern central Boeotia just north of the ancient city of Thebes.

Corcyra (1)

One of the Ionian Islands near the northwestern coast of Greece in the Ionian Sea; now called Kerkira; 593 square miles (1,536 square kilometers) in size.

The dispute between Kerkyra and the city of Korinth (Corinth) over the Ionian city of Epidamnus, was one of the initial causes of the long and bloody Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE).

The name may also be rendered as Korcyra.

Corcyra (2)

The daughter of the spring Asopos (Asopus) who was carried off by Poseidon (lord of the Sea) and relocated on an island which was then named after her; her island is located in the Ionian Sea near the coast of modern Herzegovina; the dense forests of the island made it appear black and thus earned the name Black Kerkyra.

The name may also be rendered as Korcyra.

Core (1)

A name for Persephone in Attika (Attica) as the personification of Virginity.

Core (2)

A sculptured representation of a young woman; especially sculptures produced prior to the fifth century BCE; also rendered as Kora or Cora.

Core (3)

The daughter of the eccentric king of the Molossians, Aidoneus; her father was named after Hades, her mother was named Persephone and their dog was named Kerberos (Cerberus); Kore was almost kidnapped by Pirithous and Theseus but her father saved her.


An Ionian island which lies off the northwestern coast of Greece in the Ionian Sea; 593 square miles (1,536 square kilometers) in size; called Kerkyra (Corcyra) in ancient times.

Approximate east longitude 19.45 and north latitude 39.40.


One of the wealthiest and most powerful of the ancient Greek cities; located on the Isthmus of Korinth, which connects the Greek mainland to the Peloponnesian Peninsula; due to its location, the city was a thriving artistic center as well as a major trading hub.

Approximate east longitude 22.56 and north latitude 37.56.

Corinthian Columns

The Corinthian Order of classical architecture was typified by the unique style of the Corinthian Column which had a slender fluted shaft and an ornate capitol decorated with carved acanthus leaves; the Corinthian Order was ornate and delicate compared to the Ionic and Doric Orders which were more solid, i.e. heavy looking, and did not have the grace of the Corinthian style.

Corinthian Gulf

Gulf of Korinth; the body of water north of the Isthmus of Korinth.


In relation to columns, a prominent, continuous, horizontal projection.


In relation to columns, the projecting, slab-like member of a classical cornice.

Coronis (1)

One of the five daughters of Atlas who was placed in the heavens as a star and, with her sisters, formed the asterism, Hyades, in the constellation Taurus (the Bull); her sisters are: Phaesyle, Kleeia (Cleeia), Phaeo and Eudora.

Coronis (2)

The mother of the famous healer, Asklepios (Asclepius), and the daughter of Phlegyas; she was the consort of Apollon and Asklepios was their son; when she was unfaithful to Apollon, he killed her but saved Asklepios and placed him in the care of the Centaur, Kheiron (Chiron), where he learned the art of healing.


One of the Argonauts; the son of Caeneus from Gyrton; his name may also be rendered as Koronos or Coronos.


An island in the Mediterranean Sea which was called Kyrnos by the ancient Greeks; located off the west coast of Italy directly north of the island of Sardinia and with an area of 3,367 square miles (8,720 square kilometers).

Approximate east longitude 9.00 and north latitude 42.00.


The title of a priest for the Asiatic goddess, Kybele (Cybele); they wore full armor at her rituals.

Corycian Cave

The name of a cave on Mount Parnassus which was sacred to Pan and his nymphs.


An island close to the southwestern coast of Asia Minor where the Aegean Sea joins the Mediterranean Sea; northwest of the island of Rhodes and southwest of the city of Halikarnassus; the second largest of the Dodecanese Group of islands with an area of approximately 111 square miles (287 square kilometers); located at the entrance to the Gulf of Kos.

Approximate east longitude 27.10 and north latitude 36.50.


A drinking vessel; a cup or mug used in Lakonia (Laconia).


Boots worn by tragic actors to make their roles apparent to the audience.

Kothornos had high heels and, like socks, could be worn on either foot; the Athenian tyrant, Theramenes, was nicknamed Kothornos because his detractors claimed that he would accommodate any political point of view to gain popularity; Kothornos are known today as Buskins.


Kottos and his brothers, Briareos and Gyes are the sons of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (the Heavens); all three have fifty heads and fifty arms sprouting from their massive shoulders.

The brothers were trapped in Gaia’s womb by Ouranos until the Titan, Kronos (Cronos), wounded his father, Ouranos, and they were allowed to be free, but their freedom was not to last; Kronos had helped his mother, Gaia, free the monstrous brothers but he feared their strength and beauty and so he too imprisoned them under the earth where they remained until the war between the Titans and the Olympians began.

Zeus brought the three brothers back into the light and gave them nektar (nectar) and ambrosia to renew their vitality; with their newly acquired freedom and strength, Briareos, Kottos and Gyes joined the Olympians in the war against the Titans; after ten years of war, Zeus let loose all his fury and the earth and heavens trembled under his thunderbolts; at that moment, Briareos, Kottos and Gyes bombarded the Titans with three-hundred boulders that buried the Titans and ended the war.

His name may also be rendered as Kottus or Cottus.


Nymphs of springs; Kraniades are only immortal as long as the spring they inhabit remains vital.


The personification of Force or Might; a child of the Titan, Pallas, and the Okeanid, Styx.

Creon (1)

The brother of Iokaste (Jocasta) and eventually the ruler of the city of Thebes; the tragic life of Kreon is tied to the ill fate which marked the life of Oedipus and his children.

While Oedipus was the king of Thebes, Kreon was content to simply be a member of the royal household; he did not envy the throne because, as the brother of the queen, he had money, respect and power without having the responsibilities or burdens that came with the throne; when a blight afflicted the countryside around Thebes, Oedipus sent Kreon to the oracle at Delphi to ask what the citizens of Thebes might do to regain their prosperity; when Kreon returned to Thebes he informed Oedipus that the prosperity of the country would not be restored until the murderer of king Laius was driven from the city.

After a painful investigation, Oedipus was made to realize that he, as a pawn of the Immortals, had murdered his father, king Laius, and married his mother, Iokaste; this meant that the children of Oedipus were also his brothers and sisters; when they realized their role in this horrible tragedy, Iokaste hanged herself and Oedipus blinded himself and left the city in disgrace.

Oedipus’ eldest son, Eteokles (Eteocles) assumed the throne and Oedipus’ youngest son, Polynikes (Polynices) was exiled to Argos; Polynikes organized an army to retake Thebes but Kreon could see that the inevitable outcome would be a disaster for Thebes regardless of who won the war; in an attempt to consolidate popular support, he went to the exiled Oedipus and begged him to return to the borders of Thebes and help defuse the impending doom that threatened the city; when Oedipus refused to help, Kreon kidnapped Oedipus’ daughters, Ismene and Antigone; the legendary king of Athens, Theseus, intervened and saved the girls and gave Oedipus sanctuary.

Kreon could do nothing but return to Thebes and await the inevitable war between the sons of Oedipus; Polynikes and his army attacked Thebes but the attack failed and both Polynikes and Eteokles were killed on each other’s spear; with the two sons of Oedipus dead, Kreon became the ruler of Thebes; his first decree was that Eteokles would be buried as a hero for defending the city and that Polynikes would be left to the dogs and vultures for his disgraceful attack on the city; Antigone defied Kreon and buried Polynikes; she was punished by being entombed alive in a cave; the blind prophet, Teiresias, warned Kreon that his actions were an affront to the Immortals and that if he did not give Polynikes a decent burial and forgive Antigone, he and his family would suffer dire consequences.

Kreon relented and buried Polynikes but before he could free Antigone from the cave, she hanged herself; Kreon’s son, Haemon, was the first to open the cave where Antigone was entombed and when he saw her dead body he flew into a rage and tried, but failed, to kill his father; Haemon then stabbed himself with his sword and died clinging to the body of Antigone; when Kreon returned to his palace carrying Haemon’s dead body, he was informed that his wife, Eurydike (Eurydice) had also killed herself.

The tragedy, Antigone, by Sophokles (Sophocles) tells the entire tragic story; in the poem, Shield of Herakles (Heracles) by Hesiod, Kreon’s wife is said to be Eniokhe (Enioche); since Hesiod predates Sophokles we should assume that Eniokhe was, in fact, the name of king Kreon’s wife.

I personally recommend the Penguin Classics version of The Theban Plays translated by E. F. Watling (ISBN 0140440038); the book includes the three plays dealing with Oedipus and his family: King Oedipus, Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone; I also recommend the Richmond Lattimore translation of Hesiod (ISBN 0472439030 clothbound or ISBN 0472081616 paper bound); you can find these books at your local library or you can order them through the Book Shop on this site which is linked to

Creon (2)

The king of Korinth (Corinth) who gave sanctuary to Iason (Jason) and Media after they fled Kolkhis (Colchis) with the Golden Fleece.

Iason deserted Media in favor of Kreon’s daughter, Glauke (Glauce); Medea was a sorceress and well skilled in the art of potions and poisons; to avenge herself on Iason, Medea gave Glauke a poisoned cloak and thereby murdered her.


A son of Herakles (Heracles); he became king of Messenia and was murdered by another son of Herakles, Polyphontes; his wife and son, Merope and Aepytus, took their revenge by killing Polyphontes.


In Medieval adaptations of the Trojan War, Cressida was a Trojan woman who was portrayed as the lover of Troilus, whom she deserted for Diomedes.


Of or pertaining to the island of Crete or its inhabitants.

Cretan Bull

The savage bull that Herakles (Heracles) captured on the island of Crete during his seventh Labor.

Later versions of the story say that after Herakles returned the bull to his cousin, Eurystheus, who then released the bull on the plain of Marathon where it was recaptured by the hero, Theseus; also called the Marathonian Bull.


A Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland Greece; referred to as Crete of the hundred cities in The Iliad (book 2, line 649); 8,380 square miles (21,704 square kilometers) in size.

The location of the island made it the ideal for trading with the Greek mainland, Asia Minor, the Middle East and Africa; the Minoan civilization began on Crete prior to 3000 BCE and left its influence on the Greeks with settlements at Mykenai (Mycenae), Boeotia and Asia Minor; the Minoans had a highly developed culture with included art, architecture and metallurgy which they exported throughout the Mediterranean area; the fall of the Minoan civilization has been dated to circa 1100 BCE and has been attributed to a variety of destructive influences ranging from foreign invasions to the volcanic eruption of the island of Thera.


The son of Aiolos (Aeolus) and father of Aeson; he and his wife, Tyro, were the grandparents of Iason (Jason).


A short, loose garment worn at sacred ceremonies; also spelled Kreticon.

Creusa (1)

The wife of the Trojan hero, Aineias (Aeneas), and mother of Iulus.

Creusa (2)

The mother of Ion with Apollon as the father.

After Ion was born, Kreusa put the infant in a cave to abandon him; he was saved by Hermes and delivered to the temple of Apollon at Delphi where he remained until Kreusa and her husband, Xuthus, found him through the intervention of the temple priestesses.

Kreusa and Xuthus were childless and the oracle told them to adopt the first child they encountered after leaving the temple; when they met Ion, Kreusa thought that he was the illegitimate son of Xuthus by another woman and she plotted to kill Ion but the priestess of Apollon showed her the swaddling clothing in which the infant was wrapped when he had been presented at the temple; Kreusa accepted the fact that Ion was her abandoned child and she and Xuthus took the child to the city of Athens where, according to the goddess Athene (Athena), a prophecy had been fulfilled and that Ion would become the founder of the Ionian race.


One of the Titans, i.e. one of the children of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (the Heavens); as the consort of another Titan, Eurybia, he was the father of Pallas.


A city west of the city of Delphi in the district of Phokis (Phocis).

Approximate east longitude 22.50 and north latitude 38.46.


One of the Thirty Tyrants elected to rule the city of Athens after the end of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE).

Having lost the war to the Spartans, the citizens of Athens elected thirty men to lead the new post-war government; these men became known as the Thirty Tyrants; the short lived government they comprised was an oligarchy.

The tyrants immediately began to prosecute Athenians who had been Spartan informers and collaborators during the long, hard war; the punishment of the guilty seemed appropriate to the common citizens and aristocrats alike but it soon became clear that the executions and banishments were going beyond the bounds of necessity or prudence; open hostilities soon developed between members of the Thirty and their authority and rule came to an end after one year.

Kritias and Theramenes became the two most dominant tyrants and they clashed openly over matters of public policy; Kritias clearly had the support of the other tyrants and Theramenes stood alone in his call for restraint in the punishment of citizens and aristocrats who were accused of collaborating with the Spartans during the Peloponnesian War; the conflict between Theramenes and the other tyrants was a deciding issue in the collapse of the oligarchy.


A saffron colored robe worn by Dionysus and his followers.


The king of Lydia from 560-546 BCE, i.e. fourteen years; he was the son of Alyattes and the father of Atys.

Kroesus was a barbarian, i.e. a Persian, but his kingdom controlled many areas which were occupied by Greek colonists along the Ionian coast of Asia Minor; the reign and fall of Kroesus was well documented in the Histories by Herodotus; his capital city of Sardis was situated well inside Asia Minor and the land west of Sardis was already strongly held Greek territory protected by alliances with Athens, Sparta and other militarily strong Greek cities.

Kroesus was a respected and feared leader whose reputation allowed him to influence friends and enemies alike; when the tyrant of the Khersonese (Chersonese) fell victim to his own aggression, Kroesus stepped in to save him from certain death; the tyrant of the Khersonese, Miltiades, was attacked and captured by the Lampsakenes; Kroesus sent a message to the Lampsakenes saying that he would destroy them “even like a pine tree,” i.e. once a pine tree is cut down it will no longer put out shoots and therefore utterly die; the Lampsakenes took the message to heart and released Miltiades.

Kroesus turned his aggressive attention towards the east and the Persian Empire; when he consulted the oracle at Delphi he was told that a great empire would fall if he attacked the Persians; although his army was smaller than the Persian forces, Kroesus crossed into Persian territory and engaged the army of the Persian king, Kyrus (Cyrus); the initial battle was indecisive and Kroesus retreated back to Sardis assuming that Kyrus would also retreat and wait for Spring to renew the war; he disbanded the mercenary aspect of his army and asked his allies in Sparta, Egypt and Babylonia to join him five months hence and resume the war; Kyrus did not wait for the Spring but instead marched to Sardis and defeated the diminished Lydian army.

Kroesus was taken prisoner and was due to be executed when a strange event saved his life; as he was being burned at the stake, Kroesus remembered the words of the sage, Solon; Solon had once told Kroesus that no man can be judged as happy until after his death because sadness and misfortune can befall any man up until that final moment; Kroesus uttered the words of Solon and when Kyrus overheard him, he was intrigued and ordered his men to put out the fire that was about to consume Kroesus; the soldiers batted at the flames but they would not be stilled; when Kroesus realized that Kyrus was trying to save him but the fire could not be extinguished, he prayed aloud to Apollon to save him; out of a clear sky, rain clouds appeared and a sudden downpour doused the flames.

Kyrus was duly impressed by the intervention of Apollon and bade Kroesus to sit with him and say what ever he wished; Kroesus looked at his besieged city and asked Kyrus what the Persian army was doing; Kyrus said simply that they were plundering his (Kroesus’) city; Kroesus said that the city was no longer his and the army was plundering the property that rightly belonged to the Persian king; he then suggested that Kyrus should place guards at each city gate and confiscate a tenth of the plunder on the pretext that the confiscated property was a tribute to Zeus; this would make Kyrus appear pious and deprive his army of acquiring too much wealth.

Kyrus was pleased with Kroesus’ advice and told him that he could have anything he wished; instead of asking for his freedom or his kingdom, Kroesus asked that he might send an envoy to Delphi and demand to know why Apollon had treated him so badly and given him such an ambiguous prophecy; an envoy was dispatched and, when confronted, the pythia said that Kroesus was not ill-used by Apollon but that his demise had been the culmination of a family curse that began five generations before when his ancestor, Gyges, had killed Kandaules (Candaules) and assumed the throne of Lydia; Kroesus accepted his fate and resigned himself to be the slave of the Persian king until he died.

After the death of Kyrus, Kroesus was forced into service as the advisor of Kyrus’ son, Kambyses (Cambyses); Kambyses was a tyrant of the worst sort; Kroesus tried to serve him well but when none of the Persians would stand up to Kambyses, Kroesus told him that he was acting unwisely; Kambyses ordered that Kroesus be killed but the Persians knew that Kambyses would probably change his mind and so allowed Kroesus to escape.


One of the Titans, i.e. one of the children of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (the Heavens).

Kronos was dethroned by his son Zeus just as Kronos had dethroned his father Ouranos; Kronos and Rheia (Rhea) are best known as the parents of the Olympians: Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Histia (Hestia), Hera and Demeter.

As each of his children was born Kronos would swallow them so that they could not grow to be adults and threaten his power; finally, when Zeus was born, Rheia substituted a stone for the infant and Kronos swallowed it down thinking that he had devoured the last of his children; Zeus was spirited away and allowed to grow to adulthood.

When Zeus was grown, he ambushed his father and attacked him with such violence that the previous five children were disgorged from Kronos’ stomach; Kronos was forced into the darkness of Tartaros (Tartarus) and the six children became the new rulers of heaven and earth.

For more detailed information on Kronos I suggest that you return to the Home Page of this site and consult the Immortals section.


He and Eurytus are believed to be the sons of Aktor (Actor) and Molione.


A town in the district of Dolopia in Thessaly.


The father of the Argonaut, Eurydamas, from the district of Dolopia; his name may also be rendered as Ktimenus or Ctimenus.


An abbreviated piece of body armor consisting of a breastplate and a back-plate.


The Dark-Rocks; two rocky islands near the entrance to the Euxine (Black Sea); they were once moving islands that would clash together and crush passing ships but after the Argonauts successfully negotiated the, so called, Clashing Rocks they became stationary islands; sometimes referred to as the Kyanean (Cyanean) Rocks.


The son of Phraortes and the third king of the Medes; he ruled from 625-585 BCE.

Kyaxares’ father, Phraortes, and his grandfather, Deiokes (Deioces), had expanded the influence of the Medes with military might but both were new to the theory and practice of military strategy; Kyaxares had a broader vision as to the role and potential of the military; he organized the troops into separate units based on the type of weapons they used; this was an innovative concept and proved to be effective but not as decisive as Kyaxares had hoped.

Kyaxares had expanded the empire of the Medes into Asia and confronted the Assyrians outside the city of Ninus (Nineveh) when he was simply overwhelmed by the unexpected invasion of the Skythians (Scythians); the Skythians proved to be fierce fighters but poor administrators of the territory they conquered; Kyaxares was forced to retreat from the Skythians and relinquished his rule for twenty-eight years; Kyaxares and the Medes eventually gained the advantage and drove the Skythians back into the northern lands from which they had emerged; Kyaxares finally subdued all of western Asia except for the city of Babylon; he ruled for forty years and was succeeded by his son, Astyages.


An Asiatic goddess whose priests, Korybants (Corybants), wore full armor at her rituals; the eunuchs who served her were called Bakelas (Bacelas).

Kybele was an Earth Goddess and the Greeks identified her with the wife of Kronos (Cronos), Rheia (Rhea); before 430 BCE, the center of worship for Kybele was in Phrygia in Asia Minor but a shrine was established in the city of Athens during the plague of 430 BCE in hopes that the Earth-Goddess would be appeased and end the suffering that decimated the Athenians; she was also called the Great Idaean Mother, i.e. the Great Kind Mother.


In modern science, the study of replacing human control functions with mechanical or electrical means; (kybernetes = helmsman).


A group of Greek islands in the southern Aegean Sea spread out over approximately 2,650 square miles (6,864 square kilometers).

The name literally means Circular or Round and is used for this island group because they encircle the sacred island of Delos, i.e. the birthplace of Apollon and Artemis.

Cyclops or Kyklopes

The one eyed sons of Gaia (Earth).

The name, Cyclopes, means Wheel-Eyed and they seem to have at least two different aspects:

  1. There are the three Cyclopes who forge the thunder and lightning for Zeus; they are named: Arges (Vivid One), Brontes (Thunderer) and Steropes (Lightener); and
  2. The wild Cyclopes who live in a state lawless anarchy; these are the Cyclopes that Odysseus encountered when he was blown off course after the sack of the city of Troy; they live without cultivating food, they build no homes or ships and have no institutions or laws; they live in caves and have no sense of community with the others of their race; their diet consists of the meat of wild goats or sheep, cheese and wine.

When Odysseus blinded Polyphemos (Polyphemus), the Cyclopes son of Poseidon (lord of the Sea), he was punished by not being allowed to return to his home for ten years.

  • Theogony, lines 139-146
  • Odyssey, book 9, lines 105-130
  • Cyclops
    The Cyclops

    A play by Euripides produced 425? BCE.

    I personally recommend the translations compiled by Richmond Lattimore and David Grene; you can find this and other plays by Euripides in the 882 section of your local library or you can order them from the Book Shop on this site which is linked to


    The son of Ares (god of War) who is killed by Herakles (Heracles); the story of their combat is told in the poem Shield of Herakles; his name literally means Swan and is associated with the Swan-Song, i.e. death-song.

    If you wish to read the Shield of Herakles, I recommend Hesiod by Richmond Lattimore (ISBN 0427439030 clothbound and 0472081616 paper bound); you can find this book at you local library or you can purchase it through the Book Shop on this site which is linked to


    The young woman who was tricked into marriage by a crafty young man named Akontius (Acontius).

    Akontius gave Kydippe an apple with an inscription saying, I swear by Artemis that I will marry no one but Akontius; as Kydippe read the message aloud it became a sacred oath; when her parents tried to marry her to other young men she became ill; finally, to fulfill her oath, she had to marry Akontius.


    A Spirit; the personification of Confusion or Uproar.


    A drinking cup.


    Mount Kyllene is in Arkadia (Arcadia) a short distance due west of the city of Korinth (Corinth); Hermes is reputed to have been born there.


    One of the fifty daughters of Nereus and Doris collectively known as the Nereids, i.e. the daughters of the Nereus; her name means Wave-Stiller.

    Copais to Cymatolege

    C to Celaeno Celeos to Chthonios Chthonios to Confusion Copais to Cymatolege Cyme to Cyzicos


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