The Logoi; Logoi can be translated as Lies, Stories or Fables but the meaning is clear no matter which name you choose for these sons of Eris (Discord).

The deceptive nature they inherited from their mother, in the form of lies, stories or fables, can only bring conflict and discord.


Limos; Famine or Starvation; one of the sons of Eris (Discord).


The goddess Hekate (Hecate), an earth goddess associated with sorcery, hounds and crossroads; the name also came to be identified with Artemis.


In relation to Ionic architecture, a broad, flat, horizontal surface on the entablature, sometimes colored.


The goddesses who determine human Fate; they are the three daughters of Zeus and Themis; their names are: Klotho (Clotho) Lakhesis (Lachesis) and Atropos.

Klotho spins the thread of life; Lakhesis determines the length of the thread; Atropos cuts the thread when the proper time has come for death.

They are also called the Moirai to denote their descent from the original goddess of Fate, Moira; they are not to be confused with the Furies, who are the daughters of Nyx (Night).


The fennel plant; the fodder type plant which grew on the plain of Marathon and from which Marathon got its name, i.e. from the Greek word “maratho” meaning “fennel;” known to us as Foeniculum vulgare.

When Prometheus stole fire from Zeus to give to the mortals on the surface of the earth, he hid the flame in the hollow of a fennel stalk.


An ornamental clasp or broach.


Palioxis; the Spirit of Flight or Backrush, i.e. as in retreat in battle.


Lethe; a daughter of Eris (Discord).


Tykhe (Tyche); the goddess of Chance or Fortune; an Okeanid, i.e. one of the three thousand daughters of Okeanos (Ocean) and Tethys; her name literally means Luck or Success.

Zeus gave the Okeanids, Apollon and the Rivers the special obligation of having the young in their keeping.


A decorative band on an inside wall with lettering or sculpture; a low relief sculpture between the architrave and the cornice.


A comedy by the Athenian poet, Aristophanes, produced in 405 BCE; the play won first prize at the competition of Lenaea.

The play, like many of Aristophanes’ plays, was an undisguised plea for peace with Sparta in hopes of ending the long and cruel Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE); this play came at the end of the conflict and did nothing to prevent the city of Athens from losing the war but it does show that Aristophanes never gave up hope or lost his sense of indignation for the politicians who refused, or simply could not imagine, peace with Sparta.

The play tells the story of how the god of wine, Dionysus, and his servant descended into the Underworld in hopes of bringing back an effective tragic poet to inspire the people and politicians of Athens to end the war with either an honorable victory or peace.

Dionysus assumed the guise of the hero, *(Heracles), with lion skin and club, and tried to bluff his way into the abode of Hades; the name of the play comes from the chorus of frogs who chanted the rhythm of the oar strokes as Dionysus rowed Kharon’s (Charon’s) boat to the dark shore of Tartaros (Tartarus).

After entering the Underworld, Dionysus was required to judge a competition between the two poets Euripides and Aeskhylus (Aeschylus); the two dead poets lambasted each other’s poetic skills and offered biting and humorous criticisms of the others lyrics; finally, Dionysus chose Aeskhylus as his champion and, with Hades’ consent, took Aeskhylus to the Athens to save the city from defeat by the Spartans.

The play is funny and sometimes silly but it is much easier to enjoy than the plays Aristophanes wrote at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, such as the Akharnians (Acharnians) or Lysistrata.

Aristophanes’ plays are sometimes difficult to appreciate because he was a very contemporary poet, i.e. he was writing for the Athenian audience of his day; he would use puns, parody regional accents and speak directly to the audience in ways that force modern translators to seek out the contextual meaning rather than the literal meaning of the poet’s words; for that reason, I suggest that if you find a translation that is difficult to enjoy, please don’t blame Aristophanes, simply look for a translation that you can enjoy.

There are numerous translations of this play but few of them are as readable as Richmond Lattimore’s version which is out of print but can still be found in the 882 section of your local library.


Three the daughters of Nyx (Night); Alekto (Alecto), Megaera and Tisiphone.

The Furies are known by many names such as: the Erinys (mist-Walkers), Eumenides (the Kindly Ones) and Semnai (the Holy); they are depicted as winged women of fierce countenance but, according to Pausanias (fl. 160 CE), their images on the Akropolis (Acropolis) at Athens were not fierce or supernatural.


Erinys; used in the singular to denote an avenging goddess; some translators refer to her as Strife.

Hesiod said that there were two types of Erinys; one was harsh and warlike and could be invoked at the will of the Immortals and the compulsion of mortal men; the other Erinys was the elder daughter of Nyx (Night) and placed under the earth by Zeus to cause men to compete against one another and thus better themselves and their crafts.



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